BATTLE OF LEPANTO (1571) Catholics (Holy League)  VS Ottoman Turks. The protestants in the Low  Countries: Felipe II seen as a  foreigner by the Flemish (born in  Spain, court in Madrid…) +  expansion of Protestantism…  Flemish rebelled demanding  autonomy (1566). It was the  beginning of the 80 Years War. In 1579 the northern Low  Countries declared themselves  independent forming the United  Provinces, but the war  continued. EIGHTY YEARS WAR Spain  VS United Provinces (northern Low Countries) In 1579 the northern provinces of the Low  Countries, mostly Protestant, declared  themselves independent creating the  “United Provinces” (Union of Utrecht). The southern provinces, mostly Catholic,  remained loyal to Felipe II (Union of Arras)  in order to receive protection against Protestants’ attacks. However, the war between Spain & the  protestants of the United Provinces  continued until 1648. (Eighty Years War: 1566-  1648. Felipe IV recognized their independence in the  Peace of Westfalia). The Spanish Armad Invencible wasn’t able to  invade England due to the bad weather,  it wasn’t possible to pick up the soldiers  from the Low Countries (which were  suffering the Protestant rebellion), food  rotted (since the wood was still humid)… 1598: he died in the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El  Escorial, being succeeded by his son Felipe III. TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE  17th CENTURY Absolute monarchies  & first Parliamentary systems. Growth of the bourgeoisie. Development of  science. Baroque art. Decline of Spain’s hegemony: – International  conflicts – Weak monarchs  (“Austrias  menores”). CRISIS IN THE HISPANIC  MONARCHY POLITICAL CRISIS “Validos” External conflicts Internal conflicts. DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS: 8  6 million people Wars Emigration to America Expulsion of the Moriscos Bubonic plague. ECONOMIC CRISIS AGRICULTURE: agrarian production  dropped & irrigation agriculture was  abandoned due to the expulsion of the  Moriscos. INDUSTRY: barely developed because  Domestic demand dropped due  to the demographic decline.  The wealth acquired in America  wasn’t invested in promoting  industry (they preferred to import  foreign products). TRADE: declined due to pirate attacks  & rivalry of the English, Dutch & French  traders. 

FELIPE III Peace with England (Treaty of London, 1604)  end Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) England ended financial  & military support for the  Dutch rebellion &  stopped piracy against  Spanish ships in the  Atlantic. Spain stopped supporting  Catholic rebels in Ireland.

- Peace with United Provinces: Twelve Years’ Truce  (1609)  temporary armistice* between Spain &  the Netherlands (80 Years’ War) Both sides were under  financial struggles  due to the huge costs  of their military  campaigns. – Assured the peace with France  by arranging a double Franco-  Spanish marriage: Louis XIII (King of France) & Ana de  Austria (daughter of Felipe III) Felipe IV (King of Spain) & Isabel de Borbón (sister of Louis XIII) 

felipe iv Supported the German emperor at the Thirty Years’ War (1618-48). End of the Twelve  Years’ Truce with the  Netherlands (1621)  continuation of  the Eighty Year’s war. War against France  (1648-59). INTERNAL POLICY With Felipe III  EXPULSION OF  THE MORISCOS (1609). With Felipe IV