Danza Rítmica

Corporal expression in science and art: -psychology, which uses corporal expression to help people with difficulties. This is done through psychodrama, a technique which aims to achieve a coherent personality and act as efficient therapy in patients with emotional problems.–pedagogy, which deals with corporal expression in Physical Education, since the body is not only a series of systems which need to work together and in balance, but also a vehicle of expression for communication with others. – performing arts, where it´s used in different ways: a)mime or drama to develop precision of movement and establish communication without words b)theatre, to enhance the verbal messages of the dramatic action c)dance, to convey messages through rhythmic movement. Function of the performing arts in PE: ·Promote creative development which helps us to manifest our expressive originality and, in particular, reinforce our personality. ·Foment cultural development, since the human body has always been a source of inspiration and of communication of ideas and feeling for art. · Contribute to development of the body language making the body an essential vehicle to send messages to others. Developing rhythmic ability: -stimulus which make us respond immediately and spontaneously through movement. –auditory sensitivity, through which we capture messages (stimuli) from the exterior, and distinguish rhythmic structures. –ability to concentrate, since moving to a rhytm requires listening. However, in order to listen, we need to keep quiet and concentrate on the stimulus we receive.



–movement, since rhythmic, harmonious motion depends on the richness of our motor skills. These factors will determinate our ability to interpret stimuli Our dance rhythm: ·security and comfort of movement using our joints and muscles fluidly and harmoniously. ·personal freedom to create our own rhythm without any interference, allowing our imagination to flow. ·imaginative capacity, so dancing becomes a creative process, expressed through its own language. Imitation and automatic movements, or movements which are too dependent on rules, impede creativity. Types of dance: -Classic dance, characterized by its high aesthetic value. Subject to highly elaborate rules and techniques, in which each of the steps and movements has been analysed, measured and experimented in detail. However, it is precisely this rigidity which prevents many artists from achieving their true expressivity. -Modern dance. Distinguised by its great expressive value. Originating as a reaction to the rigidity of classic dnace, the aim of modern dance is for the body to express itself freely. The Most important figure in modern dance was Isadora Duncan. -Popular traditional or folk dances. These dances have great cultural value, expressing the character and peculiar customs of a town or people, although they are also subject to some rules. –Popular modern dances. These dances are for recreation or leisure. Some of them, such as the chotis and the Charleston, are likely to die out; others such as the waltz and the paso doble still survive; and there are others, which are nowadays very popular: rock, salsa, etc. These are also subject to some rules but not as strictly as classic dance.



Requirements of expressive dance: ·Perceive. This refers to our willingness to completely take in the stimuli which reach us from the physical and human environment. It involves our cognitive, motor and emotional skills being open to this perception. Music plays an important role, since the stimuli we receive from it helps us to evoke, imagine and carry out creative actions in dance. ·Feel. Perception should allow us to respond to stimuli from emotion, subordinating our thinking to the feelings which these stimuli produce in us. ·Do. Internal feeling resulting from a stimulus must be externalised through action, distinguishing two important moments: 1. Exploration, which is when we search out an experiment to see which elements respond to our interests. 2. Updating, which is the stage in which we choose, organise and put into practice. It constitutes the moment at which the emerging creation and the dance become an original, personal, unique action.Factors intervening in energy modulation: -Time. This applies to the way energy is released in a single movement and can be done quickly or maintained over time. -Weight. A movement can be carried out energetically or with minimum energy. In the first case, we call it “strong movement” and in the second case “light movement”. -Energy output. As we move, energy can be retained inside our body, in which case we make controlled movement. When energy leaves our body without any type of restraint, the movements are free. -Space. When we move directly through space, our movements are performed in a straight line to a pre-set destination. On the other hand, if we move indirectly, the movements are winding.



Components of expressive action: -The different areas of our body. All areas have an expressive value, but they should each carry out their own functions correctly in order to have meaning or to convey message. -Basic positions (forward, profile, back, standing, etc.), which must be combined with expressive postural actions: open or closed, forward or backward, tense or relaxed, straight or round. -Movements, which must be used with a specific intent (doubt, firmness, optimism, timidity, boldness, etc.). -Rhythm, which gives the movement the time and energy required.Choreography: ·Exploratory phase, which focuses on searching for new, varied ways of movement, in order to enrich the repertoire of motor experiences. ·Composition phase, which follows on from the exploratory phase, organising the selected movements, combining them and preparing movement phrases which give meaning to the motor action.How choreography is performed: -select the topic to be worked on. -Listen to the selected music and internalise it. -Determine the rhythmic movements selected in the composition.          -Organise the space to work in. -Look for different ways of using the space: directions and paths. -Act out the dance, imprinting the meaning of the topic on it.



ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS. 1. WHAT DOES IT ENTAIL? 1.1. WHEN DID IT BEGIN? In ancient Crete, around 1500 BC, youngsters practised vaulting by leaping into the air over a bull. However, it wasnt until the 5th century BC that gymnastics in Greeece was considered to be an educational discipline that contribute towards improving children´s physical and intelectual balance. Modern gymnastics emerged in the Gym Schools that sprang up throughout  the 19th century BC in Europe. In 1819, for instance, Francisco Amorós, a Spaniard, set up a gym in Paris and filled it with horizontal bars, window bars, ropes, tall climbing frames, and trapezes. Artistic gymnastics featured in the first olympic games held in Athens in 1896. The women´s competition includes 4 events: floor exercises, vault, balance beam and asymmetric  bars. The men´s events are: vault, pommel horse, parallel bars, still rings, horizontal bar and floor exercises. 1.2. WOMEN´S COMPETITIONS EVENTS. Artistic gymnastics involves performing simple individual exercises and transitions or combinations of these exercises on a mat or specific apparatus.  It is called artistic gymnastics because,  in addition to a high level of execution,  aesthetics are also important. The BALANCE BEAM is a rectangular bar 120 cm above the ground, on which simple movements are performed such as walkovers, turns, jumps switching legs, as well as complex exercises like handstands or flic flacs.  It requires a sense of balance and coordination.  The gymnast should remain on the bar for between 70 and 90 seconds. 



With THE ASYMMETRIC BARS,  which are round and made of hard Wood, the gymnast has to perform ten different routines with different grips,  foot and hand support,  head and handstands,  swings,  release moves and flyaways…  and switch bars at least twice.  VAULT.  The apparatus is non-slip and slightly padded.  It is placed perpendicular to the gymnast’s runway.  Before jumping,  the gymnast takes off from a springboard.  FLOOR EXERCISES.  These exercises are performed on a special square mat with a safety area marked on it.  The gymnast performs a choreo graphed routine with music lasting 70 to 90 seconds. Acrobatic moves of varying difficulty are strung together: leaps, rolls, roundoffs and flic flacs. 1.2. MEN’S COMPETITION EVENTS. THE STILL RINGS are made of wood and hang from perform cables.  The gymnast builds up enormous strength so as to perform swings,  foot and hand supports,  turns,  static positions for 2 seconds, and dismounts. He is deducted if the cables swing too much during his intervention,  or if he touches them with his feet or body. With THE POMMEL HORSE,  the gymnast places his hands on the pommel,  leather or ends of the horse,  swings both legs out and performs turns known as spindles.  Deductions are made if he touches the apparatus with his legs or fails to keep them straight throughout the routine. The pommel horse is placed lengthwise to the gymnast’s approach run.  The vault is preceded by a run-up of 25 metres,  with the gymnast using his legs to take off from a springboard and supporting himself with one or both hands on the horse.



THE PARALLEL BARS,  made of elastic wood,  can be adjusted for height and are fixed to the floor by a metal bracket. The gymnast performs swings,  kips,  foot and hand supports,  hand releases and the dismount,  from a handstand or with a twist in the air. On THE HORIZONTAL BAR,  made of steel,  the gymnast has to let go of the bar at least once to perform straight arm hangs, swings and turns. It is important to carry out grips and holds properly and perform a full range of movement,  straighten out your body and dismount from the apparatus correctly.  FLOOR EXERCISES. On a mat that is identical to the one used for the women’s competition,  the gymnast combines vaults and other acrobatic moves of varying difficulty, without any music,  in a set lasting between 50 and 70 seconds. 2. FLOOR EXERCISES. 2.1. HEADSTAND. Headstands require the gymnast to remain in a static upright position, with the hands and head forming an equilateral triangle. The flexor and extensor muscles of the upper body and arms remain in tension.  For the head to be properly balanced, the gymnast’s bodyweight needs to be distributed between his hands and head.  It is also important to ensure that: the back is kept straight and the legs are straight and kept together; the top of the head is supported,  with the neck being kept completely straight; the body does not swing or sway at all. 2.2.THE HANDSTAND. The handstand, i.e. standing upside down, is more difficult and requires greater concentration than the headstand,  as there is less of a base to support your weight on and the centre of gravity is higher up.



Apart from getting into an upright position with ease, the headstand is performed properly if: you keep your arms,  upper body,  knees and ankles completely straight; don’t let your body sway or shake; come back down steadily,  on the same side you started from; keep your balance for at least 2 seconds. 2.3. CART WHEEL. The cartwheel is performed by making a full rotation around your body’s anteroposterior axis,  passing through a position when you are upside down,  with your hands and feet stretched out in a straight diagonal line. How to do it: Stretch your hands and feet; keep your arms and legs completely straight out in a straight diagonal line throughout the entire movement; keep them wide apart; complete the cartwheel without losing your balance. 2.4. ROLLS. THE FORWARD SOMERSAULT is a full 360-degree roll rotating around the transversal axis of the body. The movement is begun by crouching down with your knees bent. You will do a good somersault if,  apart from performing it with speed and ease,you make sure that you: curve your back throughout the entire movement; keep your neck flexed your head shouldnt touch the mat; roll in a straight line; keep the your palms of your hands placed in the proper position and at the same height. Finish in a crouch or standing position, without your hands touching the mat. THE BACKFLIP is a 360 degree rotation around a transversal axis.  This is started in a crouch with your back to the mat.  To do it well,  you should focus on the following aspects: curve your back; finish in a crouch without losing your balance; keep your hands parallel with your fingers at the same height as your ears: halfway through the movement, push up with your arms.



5.5. DIRECT VAULT. The stages of a vault are the run-up,  take-off,  flight and landing Being able to learn to do the vault properly depends on executing each stage correctly.  In the direct vault or leapfrog,  push off with both legs simultaneously from the springboard after taking a fast,  confident run-up.  When you plant your hands on the horse,  spread your legs and then bring them together again as you land on your feet on the mat.  The final stage of landing is not so relevant for learning how to do the direct vault as taking off from the springboard with both feet at the same height: d rives on the springboard with both feet at the same height; in flight, your hips should be  higher than your shoulders; keep your legs appart after placing your hands on the horse; keep the palms of your hands parallel, and at the same time; bend your knees to cushion your fall.

atletismo

Swing: ball in tight contact with the neck, with the fingers spread out slightly. The body leans forward and balances on the right leg. Glide. The right le gis flexed and extended quickly: the foot shifts to the centre of the circle. Final action: the athlete whirls round on their leg. The other leg remains fully extended. The elbow is extended to push the ball. The angle of relase is 45 degrees.



The origin of athletics goes back to the game paying tribute to Zeus, in Olympia, greece. 776bc.   Track and field events: races: -depending on the distance to be covered: sprint, middle-distance, long-distance, ultra-distance. –relays: 4x100m, 4x400m. –obstacle races: 100m hurdles (women) 110m hurdles (men) 400m hurdles, 3000m steeplechase. Jumping events: long, triple, high jump, pole vault. Throwing events: shot putt, discus, hammer, javelin.   Manners of run: -thrust: The take-off leg is extended, and the knee of the free le gis rased. –suspension: this is the momento of maximun length of stride. –Cushioning: the foot is placed on the ground without any abruptness. .Support: the whole leg takes the weight of the body.   Agood start is a vital skill in sprint racing, it entails adopting a position in which the body´s centre of gravity remains outside the support base. This makes the transition from a static position to one of motion much smoother. A low start is used in short races, using two sloping pates known as starting blocks. The high start is used in middle and long-distance runing.  Relay races: are speed races in wich four athletes pass a baton to one another, with each one completing a stretch of the race. In 4x100m they each run 100m, and in 4×400 each runner covers 400m. in the 4×100 the runner carrying the baton is the one that should decide on the exact momento for the hand-over. Thwo different methosds are used to recive the baton: downsweep, upsweep.The reciver faces the direction of the race and the incoming runner carrying the baton places it in their teammate´s hand with a swift movement of the arm.



In the 4x400m the hand-over procedure does nor require so much precisión since the runners are not moving fast.  Obstacle races:hurdles.  Is a speed event in which athletes must clear 10 fences in the shortest posible time. The knee os the lead le gis raised to the height of the hip, it takes off al the best distance to avoid tripping over. The knee of the take-off le gis moved outwards and the ankle is flexed. The chest leans forward as the athlete goes over the hurdle. Once the hurdle has been cleared, the athlete lans on the ground with the front part of the foot. Long jump:  the aim is to jump as far as posible after a fas trun-up and take-off using only one foot.  Take-off: le gis stretched to the full and the knee of the free leg lifts up. The ball of the foot slaps the board smoothly. Flight: the separation of the front and back legs is prolonged for as long as posible. The body is kept upright and well-balanced. Take as long as posible to curl up again. Landing: land with your knees partially bent and your legs as far forward as posible. High jump: run-up and take-off: the jumper´s arms swing up and forward. The take-off le gis stretched out quickly and rotates 90degrees to approach the bar backwards. Flight: the lead led lifts up whit the knee bent 90 degrees. The back is arched, and once over the bar, the knees are stretched out. Landing: The knees are stretched out with the feet high above. The jumper lands with the whole of their back on the mat.  Shot putt: preparation: tip of tje right foot at the back of the circle, in the opposite direction to the throwing area.